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經濟學人:巴託比職場專欄--女性高管的境況(1)

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Business

商業版塊

Bartleby

巴託比職場專欄

Mothers of invention

創新之母

The parallels and differences between two generations of female executives

兩代女性高管的異同

Betsy Holden was vice-president of strategy and new products at Kraft, a giant food company, when she became pregnant for the second time. “No one has ever done the job with two children,” her male boss worried. “How many children do you have?” Ms. Holden asked. “Two,” he replied.

在懷二胎時,貝特西·霍爾頓在一家大型食品公司卡夫公司擔任戰略和新產品副總裁。她的男老闆非常擔心,“從來沒有有兩個孩子的人做過這個職位。”霍爾頓問道,“那你有幾個孩子?”男老闆回答道,“兩個。”

This double standard is only one of the barriers that female executives face, as recounted in “Power Moms”, a new book by Joann Lublin, a former Wall Street Journal columnist. The author focuses on two waves of female leaders. The first group were the baby-boomers, born between 1946 and 1964. These were often the only women in upper management at their firms. They faced a lot of pressure to be hands-on mothers, had little support from their husbands and were reluctant to ask for reduced schedules for fear of not seeming committed to their jobs. The stress for these women was immense, especially as they felt unable to discuss their parenting problems with male colleagues.

正如前《華爾街日報》專欄作家喬安·盧布林在新書《職場媽媽》中所述,這種雙標只是女性高管面臨的障礙之一。作者聚焦於兩代女性領導。第一代的女領導們是出生於1946年至1964年的嬰兒潮一代,她們通常是其公司高層管理層中唯一的女性。她們揹負着要成為事必躬親的母親的巨大壓力,幾乎得不到丈夫的支持,也不願意要求減少工作安排,因為擔心會顯得對工作不夠投入。這些女性揹負着巨大的壓力,尤其是當她們覺得無法與男性同事討論自己的育兒問題時。

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The second wave of women, born between 1974 and 1985, had female colleagues in upper management, expected (and usually received) support from their spouses, and benefited from employer perks, such as maternity leave and flexible working. They were able to be more open with colleagues about their parental duties. This later generation has mastered the “work-life sway” in which they move back and forth between their personal and professional lives in the course of a day, conducting a meeting before taking their children for a check-up and then returning to the office.

第二代女領導出生於1974年至1985年,她們有女同事擔任高層管理人員,期望(通常能夠得到)配偶的支持,並享受着老闆的津貼,如產假和彈性工作制。他們能夠更坦率地與同事談論自己身為的父母責任。出生更晚的這一代人已經掌握了“權衡工作與生活的方法”,她們每天在私人生活和職業生活之間來回穿梭,在帶孩子體檢前能先開個會,然後再回到辦公室。

The earlier generation, by blazing the trail, made it easier for those behind them. A Harvard Business School study shows that adult daughters of employed mothers are more likely to hold supervisory responsibility and earn higher incomes while sons are likely to spend more time caring for family members. And companies are now much more willing to promote women, who make up more than a fifth of senior executive positions in American firms, compared with just 10% in 1996. A few are exceptionally accommodating, for example providing rooms where mothers can express milk, sinks to wash the breast pump and even courier services to deliver the milk when they are away on a business trip.

早期的一代女領導是開路先鋒,讓後代女性走得更容易。哈佛商學院的一項研究表明,就業母親的成年女兒更有可能承擔管理責任,收入更高,而兒子則有可能花更多時間照顧家庭成員。公司如今更願意提拔女性,在美國公司的高管職位中,女性佔比超過五分之一,而1996年這一比例僅為10%。一些公司非常樂於幫助女高管,例如,為母親提供擠奶室以及清洗吸奶器的水槽,甚至在她們出差時提供配送母乳的快遞服務。

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adj. 願意的,心甘情願的

 
committed [kə'mitid]

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stress [stres]

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關鍵字: 經濟學人 媽媽 高管

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